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33 EasyMile EZ10 autonomous shuttle | Dossier file that can be uploaded to each Lidar and other pieces of equipment,” he says. Sensor configuration is the first step, with calibration as the second and of which there are both hardware and software aspects. The first involves positioning the sensor to make sure it has a clear field of view and is set at the right angle in terms of elevation, azimuth and cant. Software-centred calibration helps ensure that the system can interpret the sensor data properly. “For the Lidars, we have specific obstacles that can be placed around the vehicle to check the mechanical positioning, as well as a software tool that allows fine adjustments to the interpretation of the data,” he says. “We also have a version for the cameras that checks they can see specific test patterns at specific positions and heights around the vehicle, and software that compensates for differences between individual cameras.” The King of Francazal Every time a change is made, whether in response to a vulnerability or to add a new function or feature, the vehicle has to go through regression testing to make sure the changes have not affected any part of the system they were not intended to. As new software releases come out regularly, testing is a non-stop process. Each release is subjected to unit and system testing in the company’s labs, but afterwards they must be tested on the vehicle itself to make sure it still performs as it should. That usually happens before the new features are tested, and takes place at the former air force base under the supervision of Francois Charlot, who is also known as the King of Francazal. The title comes from the power he has to send the vehicle back to the development team to fix anything he is unhappy about. One of his roles is to design the corner cases. While simulation can be useful for this though, it can’t find everything, Charlot cautions. In one of his corner case tests, he recalls, the EZ10 went through a red light. “Another company – not a competitor – who used simulation, said they were OK with traffic lights, but then a few days later there was a video showing their vehicle going through a red light as well. I’m really happy we were able to do that at Francazal,” he says. Customisation work on vehicles fresh from Ligier’s production line takes place at Francazal under post-production manager Pierre Ronfard. They are fitted with the parts that individual customers want and which ensure that the vehicles comply with local regulations in each country. Ronfard says this work can be as simple as attaching stickers or as complex as dealing with electromagnetic compatibility modifications that, for example, prevent interference between the vehicle’s radars or comms emitters and radio systems in the outside world. Ligier takes about three months to build an EZ10, and finished vehicles complete 50 km of autonomous driving at the company’s plant near Clermont-Ferrand, north-east of Toulouse, before being delivered to Francazal, where they will do the same again in their final configuration before being shipped to the customer. Older vehicles also return to Francazal for refurbishment and upgrades. In this way, the EZ10 fleet can evolve and grow as the services develop and the technology matures. Unmanned Systems Technology | April/May 2020 Passenger capacity per vehicle: 15 Disabled access: built-in automated electric ramp Service operation modes: scheduled (fixed route, network) or on demand Fleet management and supervision system: EZFleet Weather conditions: heavy rain, snow, fog, temperatures from -15 to + 45 C Net vehicle weight (estimate): 2130 kg (four battery packs and enhanced aircon) Gross vehicle weight (GVW): 3130 kg (four batteries and enhanced aircon) Dimensions (L x W x H): 4050 x 1892 x 2871 mm Minimum turning radius: 5 m Energy storage: lithium iron phosphate battery Battery capacity: 40.72 kWh Endurance: up to 16 hours Charge time: 6 hours with charging stations Directional control: four-wheel steering Top speed: 45 kph, but limited electronically to 25 kph Maximum gradient: 15% at GVW Connectivity: GSM, EDGE, UMTS, LTE modem, wi-fi, (VX2 module optional) Options: wireless charger, passenger external display boards Some key suppliers IMU: Continental IMU: Xsens Tyres: Continental 5G: Ericsson 5G: Saudi Telecom 5G: SFR 5G: Verizon V2X comms: Lacroix Vehicle manufacture: Ligier Wheels: PSA Lidar: 3D Laser Mapping (now merged with GeoSLAM) Lidar: Sick Lidar: Valeo Lidar: Velodyne Specifications